2003 By Birdways Travel

Click on a Circled City to go to that days Itinerary Madrid Day 1,2 Segovia Day 3 Salamanca Day 4 Coimbra Day 5 Nazare Day 6 Lisbon Day 7,8,9 Salema Day 10,11 Seville Day 12,13 Arcos Day 14 Tarifa Day 15,16 Nerja Day 17 Granada Day 18,19 Toledo Day 20

(Circled Cities are where we spent the night)


Day 1 March 25-26

Took shuttle bus to Sea-Tac and flew SAS to Copenhagen Denmark Had a four hour layover in Copenhagen so took train to central part of town and walked around a bit. Then took a SpanAir flight to Madrid. Took a bus then a taxi to Hotel Europa near Puerta del Sol Central Madrid

Seattle Washington

Copenhagen Denmark

Madrid Spain

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Day 2 March 27

Had Breakfast at Hotel Europa "zumo de naranja" (fresh squeezed Orange Juice) Walked around town (it was raining most of the day) saw the Royal Palace, Prada Museum, Starbucks, El Corte Ingles, Bought some CruzCampo beer and 1 Euro/box wine stayed at Hotel Europa again.

Madrid Spain

Crest of Madrid

The capital of Spain since 1562, is located on the geographic center of the Iberian Peninsula. Because of its central location and high altitude, the climate of Madrid is characterized by warm dry summers and cool winters.


Puerta del Sol

The Puerta del Sol is the heart of the city. This is in theory the starting point of all roads in Spain (they call it the 'zero kilometer').The square is also famous because on New Year's Eve, locals meet here to eat one grape with each of the twelve clock's strokes. The tradition says that if you are able to finish the twelve grapes before the last stroke you will have good luck in the following months.

Zumo de naranja

Zummo machines make the best orange juice because it doesn't crush the peel. It doesn't extract the oil from the peel. The juice doesn't pass over the peel.

The Machine

The Cutting mechanism

Bear Statue This statue weighs almost 20 tons! This statue is sometimes translated as the Bear and the Strawberry Tree. The Madroño tree (which sounds like Madrid) is not native to Madrid. And it is not a strawberry tree. The berries of the Madroño tree are red like strawberries. However they are very sweet and are really not good eaten raw (unlike strawberries), but are only good to eat when made into a jam.
Royal Palace


Plaza de Canovas Del Castillo No. 5
Madrid, MDR 28014 Spain
Prada Museum
CruzCampo Beer
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Day 3 March 28

Took Metro subway (map of metro) out to the airport to get rental car from National. Drove Northwest out of Madrid. Saw Valley of the Fallen, the outside of Monasterio de San Lorenzo and David made sub sandwichs. Drove to Avila to see the Medieval Walls and storks building nests. Went to Segovia and stayed at the Hostal Plaza. Had roast suckling pig for dinner.

El Escorial Spain

San Lorenzo de El Escorial, 49 Km from Madrid by road and 1,000 mts. above sea level, is one of the former royal residences and in this case owes its universal fame to the famous Monastery which was built in there by King Felipe II.

Valley of the Fallen "Valle de los Caidos"

The monument is an underground church and tomb topped with a 500 foot stone cross, which can be seen from a distance of 30 miles. Franco's impressive, yet controversial monument to the fallen heroes of the Spanish Civil War also took two decades to complete. It is sometimes referred to as "Franco's El Escorial;" Generalissimo is buried here behind the altar. First conceived as a tribute only to the Nationalists, it now includes the caidos (fallen) from both sides of the war.

Monasterio de San Lorenzo

El Escorial's Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo is surely one of the most imposing architectural sights in all of Spain. Philip II ordered its construction in 1563 and it was completed 21 years later-a remarkably short time, given the massive scope of this granite and slate fortress. The monastery is renowned not only for its austerity and magnitude, but also for its collections of priceless paintings, rare books and the mausoleum where most of Spain's monarchs are buried.

Ávila Spain

The historic atmosphere and charm of Ávila, are evident from the moment you enter its well-preserved 11th-century walls, which are among the most important medieval relics in Europe. In fact, the whole city has been declared a national landmark. The city walls themselves are a must-see sight; built over Roman fortifications, they took over nine years to complete. The Convent of St. Teresa commemorates the reformist Carmelite nun who was one of the town's most famous citizens. The Cathedral of Avila and the Monastery of St. Thomas, once the headquarters of the Spanish Inquisition, are also worth a visit.

The Medieval Walls

At the river Adaja's side at 1630 meters from sea level, Avila is the highest city of Spain and possesses the longest city walls which still today surround the city (with a longitude of 2,526 mtrs, with a medium height of 12 mtrs, and 3 mtrs thick).

Basilica of San Vicente

Saint Vincent's Church is another perfect example of Avila's monuments.
Erected in the 11th century in honor of its martyr and his sisters Sabina and Cristeta, it is one of the monumental complexes of Avila.

Segovia Spain

See a map of Segovia

Segovia is a mediaeval city, like Toledo, but with a quite a different feel to it. Its main sights are the Roman aqueduct and the Alcazar, the Disney-like appearance of which belies its sinister past. It is gastronomically important as well - you must try the cochinillo, slow-roasted suckling pig.

Roast suckling Pig "Cochinillo Asado"

Segovia's culinary claim to fame, roast suckling pig 21 days of mother's milk, into the oven, and onto your plate. (Nothing to write home about)

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Day 4 March 29

Walked around Segovia, saw the Aqueduct, Plaza Mayor, the Cathedral was closed then walked through junk shops and then saw the Alcazar. Headed west out of town to Salamanaca. Here we saw the Plaza Mayor and Cathedral. Walked through a garden and saw a salamander. We ate our afternoon snack at Pans and Company (Spain's Subway) We stayed at the Hotel Salamanaca Plaza. It was a noisy room as it was Friday night and all the University kids were partying and protesting against the Gulf War II.

Segovia Spain

Located 60 miles north of Madrid, Segovia is one of Spain’s most beautiful and historically interesting sites, and has been designated a site of global significance by UNESCO While Segovia has many striking buildings and monuments, the most famous is probably the Roman Aqueduct that is still in working condition almost 2,000 years after its construction. Other favorites include the Alcázar, a medieval castle of cut stone built in the 11th century and rebuilt in the early and the Segovia Cathedral, begun in 1525 on orders of the Emperor Charles V and the last major Gothic edifice constructed in Spain.

Roman Aqueduct

One of the best preserved Roman constructions, the Roman Aqueduct at Segovia was still in use as recently as 50 years ago. Constructed around AD 50 during the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan out of some 200,400 granite blocks, the aqueduct was made without concrete and stands due to an equilibrium of forces. When in use, it carried water from the River Frio to the city of Segovia over a distance of 16km (ten miles). The portion of the aqueduct that is above ground is 728m (2388ft) in length and consists of 165 arches, each over 9m (30ft) high, which are spectacularly illuminated at night. It is possible to climb a staircase next to the aqueduct to get views over the structure itself as well as the city.

Plaza Mayor

The Plaza Mayor is the heart of Segovia. It is dominated by the Ayuntamiento/City Hall, a 1610 granite building. The Iglesia de San Miguel is also in this plaza and here is where Isabel la Catolica was proclaimed Queen of Castilla.


The Cathedral of St. Mary is known as the Lady, and it is a great stone temple constructed upon the highest point of the city (at 1,006 mts. above sea level) at the Main Plaza of Segovia. Construction began in 1525, following a late gothic style; and was built after the stripping of the Old Cathedral which was of Romanic style,


This castle was built on the site of an old Arab stronghold, and is a good example of Spanish Gothic architecture. The rear façade of the castle has very slim, stone towers that rise high above the merlon topped walls. A fire ravaged much of the castle's interior in the mid-1800s, but it has been completely restored.

Salamanaca Spain

See a map of Salamanaca

This ancient university town north-west of Madrid was first conquered by the Carthaginians in the 3rd century B.C. It then became a Roman settlement before being ruled by the Moors until the 11th century. The university, one of the oldest in Europe, reached its high point during Salamanca's golden age. The city's historic centre has important Romanesque, Gothic, Moorish, Renaissance and Baroque monuments. The Plaza Mayor, with its galleries and arcades, is particularly impressive.

Plaza Mayor

Plaza Mayor (main square) was constructed in the 18th century by the architect Alberto Churriguera. Apart from being the heart of the town it is one of the most beautiful squares in Spain build in Baroque style. The building around the square houses the city counsel and inside the square are numerous cafés and restaurants where people can enjoy the atmosphere of Salamanca.


The cathedral in Salamanca consists of two cathedrals the old cathedral and the new cathedral. The construction of the old cathedral began in 1140 and took more than a century to conclude. In the beginning of the it was decided that Salamanca needed a bigger and more splendorous cathedral. This new cathedral was build in the same construction as the old one and was designed by the architects Antón de Egas and Alonso Rodriges. Due to the long period of time it took to finish the cathedral (more than 200 years) there was added other architectural styles to the original Gothic plans such as Renaissance elements.

West Portal of the Cathedral

The cathedral's ornate facade includes an astronaut added by a whimsical restorer in 1993. Causing a furor when it was first noticed, it is now accepted by the locals, who say "After all, he is closest to God." We could not find the astronaut.

Sub Sandwich at Pans and company David had a Chicken salad sandwich (he did not like it)
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Day 5 March 30

On our way out of Salmanaca we saw the Roman Bridge, we then headed west to Ciudad Rodrigo to look at their Cathedral that had scars from Napoleonic cannon balls, looked at their Plaza Mayor, and then drove west to the Portuguese border. Walked into uptown Coimbra saw the fountain at Garden da Manga and had a snack at the caferteria, we continued uphill to the University, past the Jewish Ghetto Walked back downhill along the Street of Broken Ribs and got some roosters. Stayed at the Hotel Astoria in a nice end room with an 180 degree view overlooking the River. Got a bottle of Port at the pizza store across the street.

Salamanaca Spain

The province of Salamanca (population 363.000), situated in the South-west corner of Castile & León on the borders with extremadura and Portugal, covers an area of 12,336 sq. km (4,763 sq. m.). Lying on Spain's Northern Plateau (meseta), it forms part of the Duero river

Roman Bridge

The original roman bridge built in the year 89 there are only 15 arcs left made of rustic granite. This bridge was an important part of the Roman silver route, which ran from Mérida to Astorga. There exists a newer bridge, constructed at the beginning of our century, in honor of the one constructed 19 centuries ago, on which a poster announced: "Attention, Trucks over 18 tons use the Roman Bridge."

Ciudad Rodrigo Spain

Little has changed in Ciudad Rodrigo in the past 185 years. Its walls and fortifications are still intact and the city is a maze of narrow winding streets that would be familiar to the soldiers of the Light Division.


Plaza Mayor

Coimbra Portugal

This city holds a special place in the hearts of all the Portuguese. Rich in its history and said to be the oldest seat of learning in Portugal with a University founded on the 13th of August in 1290 by King Dinis. This makes it one of the oldest in the world. Six of Portugal’s Kings were born here and in 1139 until 1256 it was the chosen capital of the country. The original name in the Roman period was Aeminium, and it later developed under the influence of the greater nearby town of Conimbriga. This latter place is now a large archaeological site of great interest with a museum to display the findings from the diggings. At first sight the town appears more devoted to commerce than learning but the skyline above the lower part of the city suggest its real purpose.

Garden da Manga
Jewish Ghetto
Street of Broken Ribs
The Rooster from Barcelos has become a national symbol.

A young man was sentenced to be hanged for a crime he didn't commit. In this case, there was not enough doubt to do the accused any good. The judge received the young man in his own home and even served him a fried rooster. Once again, the man swore he did not commit this crime, and, probably inspired by his two favourite saints, he suddenly lifted his right hand's two swear fingers and exclaimed: "Honourable judge, by the Virgin Mary and the Holy John, I once again swear that I am innocent. If I lie, the rooster on that tray will stay where it is, but if I am telling the truth, it will rise and crow". In the same instant, the rooster was in its earlier feathers, standing up and crowing so it was heard all over Barcelos. The young man was immediately released.

Ponte Santa Clara

Hotel Astoria

A glorious 1926 hotel which has been beautifully restored to its original charm and atmosphere. Featuring delightful public areas furnished in the original Art Deco style, the hotel offers wonderful views over the University, the cathedral and the river Mondego.

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Day 6 March 31

Ate breakfast at the Hotel Astoria, good breakfast except they had tang for the orange juice. Went over to Condeixa and eventually found the Roman ruins. We strolled through the ruins. It was a clear and warm day, there were only a few other people there. We put a Euro in the box to make the fountains run for 2 minutes. After that we drove west and south to the coast. Nazare is known for their green wine and Women with 7 Petticoats. We sat on the beach and drank a bottle of green wine while watching the sun set over the Atlantic.

Condeixa Portugal

Conimbriga Roman Ruins

This, the largest and most extensively excavated Roman site in Portugal, was on the Roman road between Lisbon (Olisipo) and Braga (Bracara Augusta). There is evidence of Roman habitation as early as the 2nd century BC, but it was under Augustus, from about 25 BC, that Conimbriga became a substantial town : baths, a forum and the aqueduct have been uncovered from this era. The finest buildings, however, date from the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD, and they provide a vivid image of a prosperous city. At Conimbriga is one of the largest houses discovered in western Roman empire. This opulent villa, known as the Casa de Cantaber, is built around ornamental pools in superb colonnaded gardens, with it´s own bath complex and a sophisticated floor heating system. A set of ducts did the heat transport below the massive floor. Some of the fine mosaics in the museum probably came from this huge residence

The Romans arrived in the 2nd Century A.D., conquering the Celtic inhabitants and establishing a city that grew, flourished, and then fell victim to barbarian invasions until Conimbriga's residents fled to nearby Coimbra in 468. Archaeologists estimate that only 10 percent of the city has been excavated.

Câmara Municipal da Nazaré Portugal

See a 360 degree view of Nazaré

Nazaré is an old fishing village. In the old days, before the new harbour was built, the fishing boats were pulled on to the beach by oxen. Going out to sea they were pulled by hand to the surf until a favourable wave would take them out. Nazaré is divided in three parts, Pederneira, the old city centre, Praya (meaning beach) and Sitio, built on a a rock 110 m. above the old city. You can get to Sitio by funicular or by car, following the signs to Marinha Grande. From Sitio you'll have a wonderful panoramic view over Nazaré and it's beach. The Nazaré beach is considered one of Portugal's most beautiful

Vinho Verde

These wines are aptly named Vinho Verde (Green Wine) as they are picked early and drunk young.

Women with 7 Petticoats

The tradition was that women would wear 7 petticoats because in the winter it would get very cold and they would wander the beaches waiting and watching for their husbands to come home from fishing. They could use some of the petticoats to wrap around their shoulders or over their heads as scarfs. Also, traditionally if you were a widow you wore black for life. So while walking around town or sitting on the beach, these women in full but only knee-length during the summer skirts and very traditional looking scarves and shoes and such will walk by.

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Day 7 April 1

Drove south on the Motorway to Sintra, Walked up to Pena Palace and then the next hill over to the Moorish Castle. Drove into Lisbon, missed our exit and had to go over the 25 April Bridge and then back over (had to pay the toll). Found our Hotel Veneza and then strolled down to the River Tejo. Bought a bottle of Lancers (David thought it was a cheap American wine). Stopped at Pingo Doce (to get some snacks) and had a sub sandwich on the way back.

Sintra Portugal

Known in ancient times as Mons Lunae (the Hills of the Moon), because of its strong traditions of astral cults, still clearly visible in the region's countless monuments and archaeological remains, the Serra de Sintra is a granite outcrop roughly 10 km long, rising abruptly between a vast plain to the north and the estuary of the River Tagus to the south. It is a mountain range that twists and turns, projecting into the Atlantic Ocean to form Cabo da Roca - the headland that marks the westernmost point of' continental Europe.

Pena Palace

Palácio da Pena, or "Castelo da Pena" as it is more commonly known, is the most complete and notable example of Portuguese architecture in the Romantic period. It stands on one of the rocky peaks of the Serra de Sintra, and blends in a surprisingly fortunate manner with its natural background of greenery and crags, testifying to the aesthetic potentialities of the project.

Moorish Castle

Constructed by the Moors in the 8th or 9th Century A.D., this castle is situated on two peaks of the Serra de Sintra, and from its walls there are magnificent views.

Lisbon Portugal

Had the Richter Scale been invented then, the great earthquake which all but destroyed Lisbon on 1 November 1755 (All Saints Day) would have registered a massive 8.9 The first of the three shocks was at 9.40 am and lasted between 6 and 7 minutes.An estimated 40,000 people died during the quake, which was felt as far away as Scotland and Norway. Lisbon’s amazing recovery after the great earthquake in 1755 is largely due to one man, the Marquês de Pombal (1699-1782), who as prime minister directed the rebuilding of the city. His simple architectural design (now known as Pombaline) can be seen in the parallel streets of the Baixa district and along Avenida da Liberdade, which leads all the way up to his statue at Praça Marquês de Pombal. Beneath the streets of Lisbon’s downtown shopping area exists a hidden underworld of Roman corridors, bridges, rooms and galleries, which was only discovered after the great earthquake in 1755. The entrance to this fascinating subterranean district is marked by a block of metal at the top of Rua da Conceição, which is only open to the public two days a year due to the dangerous conditions below.

Christ looking over Rio Tejo "Santuário do Cristo Rei"

On the south bank of the river Tagus, the Cristo Rei, built in 1959, is a 110 metre high statue of Christ from which there is a remarkable view over Lisboa and the estuary of the Tagus. There is also a church and a shop with religious items in the area.

Praca dos D Pedro IV


Color: Clear bright pink with a salmon hue.Bouquet: Fragrant, with scents of fresh berries.Taste: Delightfully approachable style with lively ruit flavors that extend into the finish.Grape Varieties: A variety of the best Portuguese grapes. Lancers is the largest selling Portuguese wine worldwide.Serving suggestions: Serve alone or paired with a variety of foods. Lancers goes very well with light meals, Oriental cuisine or even spicy foods such as Mexican cuisine. Should be served well chilled.

25 April Bridge

The 25 April Bridge, renamed after the 1974 revolution, is not only Europe’s second-longest suspension bridge but the third longest in the world. Stretching 1,013 metres (3,323 feet), the bridge opened on 6 August 1966 at a cost of US$45 million One of its foundations, with a depth of 79 metres (260 feet) beneath the Tagus river bed, is the deepest of any bridge in the world.

Pingo Doce

A supermarket chain in Portugal

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Day 8 April 2

Walked down to the Plaza and caught bus to Castelo San Jorge. Walked around the walls and then down hill, stopping at a cafe overlooking the river and Alfima. Walked down through the Alfima (narrow streets, apparently few if any bathrooms in homes) finally exiting near the harbour. After purchasing a couple of hand painted plates, we continued on to the Elevator to Gloria and the Baixa. We walked to the church which used to bury its dead beneath trap doors in the floor. We then continued down past the German Beer hall and finally into the central town. That evening we enjoyed a Fado and dinner at the Severa Restaurante Tipico. Pete had a lemon sherbert filled frozen, hollowed out lemon. Took a taxi back down to Hotel Veneza.

Lisbon Portugal

Perched on the edge of the Atlantic Ocean and with a personality split between Western Europe and Northern Africa, Lisbon is a European city like no other. Portugal's capital boasts as grand a cultural and historical heritage as any other major European city, but also a tumbledown, earthier side that sets it apart.

Castelo San Jorge

The Castelo de Sao Jorge (St. George's Castle), the name comes from the time of King Joao I ( late 14 century) Before it was known simply as Lisbon Castle. It consist of the former citadel of Alcazar, twelve gateways (seven of which lead to the parish of Santa Cruz do Castelo), the battlements and wall of Barbeca (Barbican) and eighteen towers (eleven of which belong to the fortress, and one, Torre de Sao Lourenco, is linked to the battlements by a long stairway. The building was severely damages by the 1755 earthquake.

Rua Augusto Rosa

Rua Augusta (Augusta street) is located in one of the busiest quarters of Lisbon. Closed to traffic, this pedestrianised street has all sorts of shops for all sorts of tastes, flower peddlars, hot chestnuts sellers, street cafés, independent street Artists like the "statue man" or the familiar harmonica player


The Alfama is a charming Moorish quarter with narrow, twisting streets that lead from the Tagus (Tejo) river to the 10 towers of St. George's Castle. This is one of the most typical quarters of Lisbon. On its narrow and winding streets you'll find the hidden treasure of Alfama and on its steep stairs you will be able to breathe the soul of Lisbon. Rebuilt by the local population after the 1755 earthquake

Funicular Elevator da Gloria

This counterbalanced tram takes you from Restauradores, just near the Tourism Office of Lisbon, to Bairro Alto, an interesting quarter to look around. Here, you may see S. Pedro de Alcântara garden and a belvedere over Lisbon and the Castle of Saint George (Castelo de S. Jorge) in front. Near by, on Largo Trindade Coelho there is the Port Wine Solar (Solar do Vinho do Porto) where you can taste most of our Port Wines. This is also an area of good antique stores. The Elevador da Gloria brings you from the Baixa up to Bairro Alto. It's better than climbing the stairs!

Statue in Largo Trindade Coelho

Sao Roque Church

This 16th-century church, with an adjoining museum, is in itself a piece of art. One of its most beautiful chapels, the Chapel of St. John the Baptist, was lavishly decorated with precious stones and richly painted tiles during the country's most opulent period.

Convento do Carmo

The Carmelite convent of Ours Lady of the Expiration of the Carmo, established for Nuno Álvares Pear tree, started to construct itself in 1393 being concluded in 1423. It is a great monument of the gótica architecture; aquando of the conclusion the church of the Carmo it was the greater of the capital. With the earthquake of 1755 the convent has remained inhabitable, but great part of the church ruíu subsistindo the main façade, the central ship and the two laterals of the body of the church, currently the open sky.

Elevador do Santa Justa

The Santa Justa Elevator is a remarkable masterpiece designed by an apprentice of Gustave Eiffel and makes the connection between the Baixa (downtown) and Bairro Alto (high neighbourhood).This almost centenary system (97 years old) is the only vertical elevator for carrying passengers that still exists. It is composed by twin metallic towers, each 45 meters high, a metallic gangway which links it to Largo do Carmo, and a reinforced concrete pillar supporting the gangway.

Fado at A Severa Restaurante Tipico

Fado is an urban song from Lisbon (Portugal) originally brought as a dance to Portugal by African slaves in the 19th century and later recovered by white marginal segments of the society that used topics such as destiny, betrayed love affairs, death and despair as main themes of their music.

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Day 9 April 3

We took the trolley to Belem and saw the Monument to Discoveries, walked along the River Tejo to Belem Tower and then back over to the Mosteiro dos Jeronimos. Took the #15 trolley back to town and then took the #28 around town. We walked up to the Solar do Vinho do Porto and had a few glasses of Port wine and took the Funicular Elevator da Gloria back down to our hotel the Veneza

Lisbon Portugal

See a map of Central Lisbon

#15 Trolley to Belém

The line begins in Praça da Figueira and finishes on the city limits. Along its way passes through the docks, an area that is now beeing discovered and rehabilitated, and proceeds through the western part of Lisbon, including Belém and the historical sites related with the Age of Discoveries.

Lisbons Transportation Company

Monument to Discoveries "Padrao dos Descobrimentos"

This monument was built in 1960, by architect Cottinelli Telmo and sculptor Leopoldo de Almeida to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the death of Henry the Navigator (1394-1460),

Belém Tower

Throughout the night of 7 July 1497, the pioneering Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama prayed in an old mariners chapel in Belém, west Lisbon, for the safe return of his captains and crew from their forthcoming voyage to India. The expedition was a success and a new sea-route to the East was discovered. After his return two years later, the chapel was replaced by the imposing Jerónimos Monastery, where his body now rests.

Mosteiro dos Jeronimos

The Mosteiro dos Jerónimos and the Torre de Belém are the supreme architectural representatives of a period in which the Portuguese nation played a leading role, expanding the horizons of both Europe and the world. They were erected symbolically in Belém, which, in the sixteenth century, was the site of the port from which the caravelas and other large ships set sail on the great voyages of the Portuguese maritime discoveries. Today, now that both the port and beach have disappeared, the site has become a pleasant leisure area

#28 Trolley around town

This is one of the most interesting routes they have for discovering Lisbon and its hills. Starting at Martim Moniz it goes up the hills where Lisbon began. Going through the area of Graça quarter, above Mouraria, passes the São Vicente de Fora Church and the site of the Thieve's Market, and goes through part of the picturesque Alfama. Next it passes near the Castle, descends past the Cathedral and through the Baixa shopping area, goes up the hill again to Chiado shopping area and past the Bairro Alto quarter, known for its night life and Fado houses. After descending the hill and going past the National Assembly, it ascends to Estrela, passes the garden and end at Campo de Ourique quarter.

Solar do Vinho do Porto The Port Wine Institute, a public entity created in 1933, is responsible for controlling the quality of the several types of Port Wine and for defending and promoting these wines. Once a wine has been approved by the Port Wine Institute, it acquires the right to call itself Port, to bear the Seal of Guarantee and to a Certificate of Denomination of Origin, both of which are issued by the IVP.

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Day 10 April 4

We drove to Evora. It was mostly sunny. Just before Evora, we stopped at some ancient Celtic stone circles in a cork forrest. It was windy. We then continued on to the actual city, which after parking we walked through without guidence and feeling a bit lost until we found the TI. We then went and saw the Roman Temple to Diana. After pictures, we then saw the Chapel of Bones. We then drove through more cork forrest - beautiful with wild flowers - to Salema and Cape Sagres. We spent the night in Salema.

Évora Portugal

See a map of Évora

The ancient walled city of Évora rises out of the vast Alentejan plain 62 km west of the Spanish border. It was taken from the Moors in 1166 by an outlaw knight, Gerald the Fearless, who scaled the walls at night on a ladder of lances. Évora later became a popular residence of Portuguese kings, but fell out of favour after Spain's annexation of Portugal in 1580.

Cork forests

Cork is the outer bark of the evergreen cork oak (Quercus suber). This variety of oak grows mainly in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy, and the Maghreb Cork is sustainable. It is harvested by stripping the bark every nine years. Each cork oak tree provides an average 16 harvests over its 150-200 year lifespan. Cork consists of a tight web of up to 40 million cells per cubic centimetre. The cell membranes retain gas, giving cork its capacity to float, insulate and re-expand quickly after compression. Cork is natural, recyclable and biodegradable. No natural or man-made material replicates its properties. Cork retains unique qualities of flexibility, elasticity and compressibility. Its extreme resilience, impermeability, lightness and insulating efficiency make it ideal for a large number of applications.

Megalithic enclosure of Almendres

Roman Temple "Templo Romano"

Évora's Corinthian-style Roman temple is popularly believed to have been dedicated to the goddess Diana. Erected in the 2nd century, it was transformed into a fortress during the Middle Ages and even a slaughterhouse in the 19th century.

Chapel of Bones "Capela dos Ossos"

This macabre chapel are lined with the bones of thousands of nuns and monks laid out in intricate patterns, with a legend at the door that roughly translated means "Our bones are here, we await yours."

Praco de Giraldo

This picturesque central square is adorned with medieval arches and is an ideal place to relax and do some people-watching.

Sagres Portugal

The town of Sagres itself is a small fishing port in the extreme south west of the Algarve and in itself has no particular merit. However the Ponte de Sagres, a rocky wind-blasted outcrop jutting out into the Atlantic is a spectacle to behold.

Cape Sagres The End of the World

The casual tourist would never suspect that desolate, forbidding Cape St Vincent was the site of two of the most significant events in maritime history. What happened here six centuries ago led to the discovery of the world as we know it today. Before then only the bravest of Mediterranean sailors dared to venture beyond the "Pillars of Hercules" (Strait of Gibraltar), and none was foolhardy enough to sail past the rugged cliffs which marked the end of the known world. All that changed in the 1400s: the world was opened up to discovery, exploration and settlement; and Portugal and other countries went on to acquire overseas empires and great wealth. All this was due mainly to the foresight and determination of one man – Portugal's scholarly Prince Henry (1377-1440).

European spice and silk merchants had long been amassing great wealth, but the caravan routes from the Orient were controlled by the Moors and their allies, and were subject to arbitrary whims, tolls, bandits, etc. There were rumours of a fabulously wealthy Christian king named "Prester John" in central Africa, who supposedly controlled a better and safer route. Henry vowed to find him and the new route, but couldn't succeed without sailors to brave the unknown seas and treacherous winds around western Africa. Since none was forthcoming he decided he'd have to train some himself, so he established a navigation and seamanship school near what is now Sagres, just to the east of Cape St Vincent. It was probably the world's first great research and training institute and it earned him a place in history as "Henry the Navigator".

Salema Portugal

The small village of Salema lies a dozen kilometres to the west of Lagos, beyond the villages of Luz and Burgau, and is perhaps one of the most unspoilt fishing villages on the Algarve. Narrow cobbled streets wind past fisherman's cottages

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Day 11 April 5

After breakfast (with more good orange juice). We drove to Cape Sagres to see the lighthouse and fort. We stopped at a ceramic store where FG bought a duck for a Euro. Pete bought his sister Pat; 2, sunflower plates and David got 12 plates and 6 mugs. We tried to stop at some Roman ruins on the way back to the Hotel but couldn't find them. We returned to Salema where we spent the rest of the day walking on the beach drinking espresso and sipping wine while watching the sun set over the Atlantic. There were lots of beautiful flowers of all colors all over the place.

Sagres Portugal

Sagres is situated inside the Southwest Alentejo and Costa Vicentina Natural Park, at the most South-Westerly point of Portugal and Europe.

Lighthouse at Cape Sagres
Fortaleza de Sagres

Salema Portugal

Octopus Pots

They are commonly collected in octopus pots. These were traditionally made of clay but in modern times they are typically made of plastic or PVC. Octopuse pots are not baited like crab and lobster traps, rather, they provide a seeming safe home.

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Day 12 April 6

Got our laundry done here overnight. Hotel had good Orange Juice (lots of pulp), saw some Reconquista ruins just outside of town and then headed towards Sevilla. We crossed into Spain on a fancy bridge over the Rio Guadiana. We arrived in Sevilla and after circling the city we managed to find our way to the Hotel Hesperia. We enjoyed the evening paseo "stroll" and warm early evening tempertures (mid 70's). We found a really really good Chinese Restaurant across from the El Corte Ingles. On our way back to the Hotel some blooming trees had a very strong scent.

Salema Portugal

Reconquista ruins

As soon as the Moors had conquered Spain in 711 AD, the descendants of the Visigoths and the Romans joined forces to try to get the Moors out of Spain again. These Spanish people gradually conquered more and more of Spain, beginning in the north near France and fighting little by little toward the south.

Sevilla Spain

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Day 13 April 7

From the Hotel we walked towards Central Sevilla. After stopping for breakfast, we wandered through the Santa Cruz neighborhood looking into the shops and courtyards. We then walked throght the Cathedral seeing Columbus tomb and Giralda tower. From there we went to Plaza de Toros and then wandered down the river past the Torre del Oro. From here we continued on to the Plaza de Espana, FG decided to take a nap and Pete and David continued on looking at junk shops. We finished the day by eating at the Chinese Restaurant again.

Sevilla Spain

Cathedral Santa Maria de la Sede

The world's largest cathedral, the Santa Maria de la Sede, takes centre stage in the city, its magnificent interior filled with art treasures and works by Spanish artists such as Murillo and Goya. Ferdinand III and Christopher Columbus lie buried here. It is, arguably, the most beautiful building in Seville and you can climb to the top of the spiral ramps for the best view. Adjoining is the Giralda Tower, built as a minaret to call the Islamic faithful to prayer but later converted into a bell tower by the Christians.

Giralda Tower at Cathedral Santa Maria de la Sede
Barrio Santa Cruz

Torre del Oro

The "Torre del Oro" is an Arab monument. The 12-sided Tower of Gold, dating from the 13th century, overlooks the Guadalquivir River. Originally it was covered with gold tiles, but someone long ago made off with them. Recently restored, the tower has been turned into a maritime museum, Museo Náutico, displaying drawings and engravings of the port of Seville in its golden heyday.

Plaza de España

In 1914, the Spanish architect Aníbal Gonzalez started with the construction works for the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929, which partly took place inside María Luisa park. The new buildings of the Plaza de España were used as the office of the fair.

El Corte Ingles

This posh department store has branches all over Spain (the main branch is in Madrid) and features lots of Spanish-made products, from leathers to linens.

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Day 14 April 8

The day began unsuccessfully by attempting to locate a miniature Space Needle at the site of the 1992 World's Fair. We drove to Arcos on the Freeway. Upon arriving we stopped at the Carrefour supermarket and purchased wine, cheese, and Coke Light. We continued on to the central town, driving down narrow lanes to the Parador, which is located on the main square in the old city centre. We then walked down to the post office to mail a package of plates, which cost 30 Euros to purchase and 50 Euros to mail. We finished the day by strolling the lanes of this town looking at a few courts and seeing a couple of churches. Pete had a bowl of Gazpatcho at the Parador.

Arcos de la Frontera Spain

Arcos de la Frontera is situated on cliffs high above a meander in the River Guadalete. A typical defensive hill village with cobbled streets leading up to a castle, which was built in the fifteenth century on Moorish foundations. The view from the castle and village is staggering. There is a Parador here, which a good place to take a quiet drink and watch the view in a relaxed atmosphere.

Carrefour FGs Favorite wine store Vinho Tinto at 1.05 euro a bottle

Santa Maria Church

The Gothic structure of Santa Maria church is still preserved despite the successive alterations, which brought the portal, the Baroque tower and some outstanding features, especially the main reredos and the choir. A very valuable example of the Gothic period is the 14th Century painting of Crowning the Virgin in the left hand aisle.

Parador Hotel See a map of the Paradors

It was in 1910 that the government assigned the Marquis de la Vega Inclán the task of creating a hotel infrastructure-practically non-existent in Spain at the time-that would house travelers and improve Spain's image abroad.After the opening of the Parador de Gredos , the "Board of Paradores and Inns of Spain" was formed and efforts were channeled into perfecting the original idea and into making use of selected historical-artistic monuments and beautiful landscapes for the establishment of new Paradores.


A soup bowl of gazpatcho, the celebrated cold vegetable soup of southern Spain. Included in this time-honored delicacy are onions, cubed bread, hard boiled eggs, tomatoes, cucumber and bell peppers all finely chopped. One can also add to the gazpatcho the garnish of one's choice.

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Day 15 April 9

Had breakfast at the Parador (9 Euros each the best so far). Drove up the winding road to Benaojan, got too the caves to late for the tour (next tour was in an hour). Proceeded to Ronda on more winding roads. In Ronda we saw the gorge (where someone had jumped off earlier in the morning) then the bridge. Bought my sister Pat a sun plate here. Then we headed to the Bull Ring, walked past some churches, and drove out of town. Continuing on the winding roads we finally hit the Mediterranean and the Costa del Sol. The Hotel we had booked in Tarifa apparently was not open (we think the owner was on vacation), so we went to the TI and got another place along the Atlantic. Walked down to beach and ate at the Hotel.

Benaojan Spain

Benaoján, situated at 565 metres above sea level, extends its houses over the small valley of the Montejaque brook, from the foot of the Sierra de Juan Diego up to the Guadiaro river which comes out at the Barriada de la Estación. Although most of the district’s lands form part of the Guadiaro valley, the sierras (Juan Diego - 1,298 m. and Palo - 1.041 m.) which dominate the municipality’s landscape are narrowly joined to the mountain complex known as Sierra de Libar and through it to the Natural Park of the Sierra de Grazalema, which mainly extends through the province of Cadiz.

Cueva de la Pileta

Spain’s most spectacular prehistoric art. Approximately seven miles from Ronda lies the archaeological enclave that was discovered in 1905 by the Bullon family. The Cueva de la Pileta has remained a family run historical site and was also declared a national monument. Step into the interior of this cave and step back in time. Guided by a lamp and a guide you will eye superb Rupestrian art donned on the rock interior.

Ronda Spain

Ronda is one of Andalucia's loveliest towns, steeped in history. It stands on a towering plateau in the mountains of Malaga Province, and is famous through Spain for the plunging river gorge which divides the medieval from the 18th century parts of the town. This gorge is known as El Tajo – The Cliff and is spanned by a stone bridge, which once housed a prison. Visitors love to peer down into the gorge, to see the waters of the River Guadalevín. Ronda sits on a large rock outcroping. Because of the cliffs, Ronda was one of the last Moorish cities to fall to the Crusaders.

The Gorge

Perched high on a rock precipice 150 metres (just under 500 ft) above the gorge below the town sits on both sides of the gorge with the old Moorish town of La Ciudad (literally 'The City') to the South and the newer El Mercadillo (Little Market) district to the North. Three bridges span the ravine, the most impressive being the Puente Nuevo (New Bridge) which was built in the 18th Century. This is where most tourist activity can be found and where the most dramatic photos can be taken.

Puente Nuevo

Bridge from the 18th century combining the two parts of Ronda. Good views over the gorge with the Guadalevín river and to the Sierra de Grazalema.

The oldest and perhaps the most beautiful bullring of Spain only a few feet from the old bridge. Constructed in the year 1785 in Neoclassical style with a Baroque doorway.

Convento de la Carmelitas Descalzas

St. Teresa was a Discalced Carmelite nun who became the first woman to be declared a Doctor of the Church. She experienced almost every phenomenon peculiar to the mystical state, yet she remained a shrewd businesswoman, administrator, writer, spiritual counselor and foundress. They keep her severed hands in this church.

Tarifa Spain

There is something very ancient about the place. The fishermen here still use the almadraba method of tuna catching where the boats settle in a circle. This little fishing town was the first point of the Moorish invasion of Southern Spain in AD711.In 1295 Guzman El Bueno defended the town against the invading Moors. According to the local legend, the Moors captured his son and threatened to kill him if Guzman didn't surrender the town. He refused and threw down his sword with which they killed his son.

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Day 16 April 10

Drove to Algeciras shopped at Carrefour then on to Gibraltar. David forgot his passport so we couldn't get in. Bummed around La Linea, Algeciras, and then walked around Tarifa. Walked down to the Atlantic Coast from our Hotel and then ate at the Hotel. They had slices of the ham that you saw in every store in Spain.

La Linea de la Concepcion Spain

Located on a sandy flat surface at the very southend of the Iberian Peninsula, bathed by the sea of the Algeciras Bay and the Mediterranean at the West beaches. this town was born and grew because of the ancient "Line of countervalation of the stronghold of Gibraltar",

Rock of Gibraltar with the airport on the right.

Tarifa Spain

Read a story about the battle of Tarifa

Castillo de Guzman
Sancho el Bravo
Old City gate

These hams are a key component in Spanish cuisine, and recent changes in import legislation have begun to make them available in Europe and other parts of the world. Served in thin slices, it makes an exquisite snack; and small amounts add a delightful flavor to a wide variety of dishes such as soups, vegetables, or pasta. Such is the variety and complexity in flavor, aroma and texture, that experts regularly organize tastings in much the same way as with wine. Produced using methods similar to those employed in Italy for making "Parma ham", or in France to produce "jambon cru"; the Spanish variety offers a unique taste experience, with its own special flavor, texture and aroma.
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Day 17 April 11

Drove to Gibraltar, took the city bus to Europa Point and waited for it to quit raining. Walked through some tunnels to Parsons Lodge and into downtown. The cable car was not running today as it was too windy, so we took a mini-bus tour of the sights. Went to Upper Rock Park, saw the Barbary Apes, walked through St Michaels cave, and then on to the great siege caves. The mini-bus left us off at the cable car. Walked through downtown had some fish and chips, and walked back to the car. Drove east along the Mediterranean Sea to Nerja.

Gibraltar UK See a map of Gibraltar

Gibraltar was possessed successively by the Phoenicians. Carthaginians, Romans and Visigoths but remained uninhabited till the Mohammedan invasion of the Iberian peninsula in 711 A.D. by Tariq-ibn-Zeyad from whom Gibraltar gets its name, Gibel Tariq (Tariq's Mountain) and the city itself was founded by the Almohad monarch, Abd el Mumin in 1160 A.D. The Spaniards finally captured Gibraltar from the Moors in 1462 and retained it until 1704. In that year it was surrended to an Anglo Dutch force during the war of the Spanish Succession, since when it has remained in British hands.

Europa Point

Europa Point is the southernmost tip of Gibraltar, and the home to the lighthouse.

Parsons Lodge

Parsons Lodge is a very important military point and played an important role in being one of Gibraltar's defence points. It once housed three 18 ton ten inch rifled muzzle loaders. During the second world war the place under went renovations and was made more modern to again take part in defending Gibraltar. It was built on the old reinforced Spanish walls.

Upper Rock Park

The Upper Rock Nature Reserve is a protected area of great natural beauty perched about 1380ft (421m) above sea level on the limestone peninsular of Gibraltar. Its most famous residents are the Barbary Apes, which have lived on the Rock for hundreds of years. According to legend, when the apes leave, Gibraltar will cease to be British.

Barbary Macaque

The Apes are a species of tailless monkeys called Barbary Macaques. These Macaques can be found in Morocco and Algeria, with those in Gibraltar being the only free-living monkeys in Europe today

St Michael's Cave

A vast underground cavern with an auditorium at the base which is now used to hold concerts. Coloured lighting is used to great effect in the cave and don't miss the giant cross-section of a stalagmite that shows the history of it's growth.

Great Siege Caves

Constructed in the sieges of the 18th century, a network of tunnels into the rock to allow the mounting of a prototype gun (the first ever to be able to fire downwards). The tunnels you can visit are actually part of a network of more than 32 miles of tunnel.

Airport Runway

The road to Spain runs directly through the middle of the runway and has to be closed when aircraft land and take-off.Once you got through customs you get to walk across the airport runway. If you don't see any cars crossing with you, do look for the crosswalk light and verify the way is clear with no planes landing.

Nerja Spain

The town of Nerja is located in the Spanish region of Andalucia on the Costa del Sol. Nerja has become a popular tourist resort in recent years whilst managing to avoid the skyscraper development and mid-summer madness which now characterizes much of coastal Spain. The resort is at the eastern end of Malaga province, just 50 kilometres drive from the international airport. Nerja, which takes its name from the Arab Narija meaning "abundant fountain", nestles at the foothills of the Sierra de Tejada mountain range and boasts 16 kilometres of coastline with seven beaches within walking distance of the town.

Cerveza Pilsen

Brewed in Malaga on the Costa del Sol, this alleged pilsner has a slight hoppy nose (reminiscent of socks and grass). It has a bubbly, dry, tinny taste with some hop notes and a touch of sweetness. It is fairly clean in the finish. Fairly dull, but at least it smells vaguely hoppy and is reasonably refreshing.

FG bought some of this in the SuperSol for 37 cents a can.
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Day 18 April 12

We walked up to the Balcony of Europe and looked out on the Mediteranean Sea. We then drove to Granada attempting to see a castle in a small town until we scraped the side of the car and David was too upset to continue on that route. We arrived in Granada at mid day and found our way through the street barriers to the Macia Plaza, our Hotel at Plaza Nueva. After eating Tomotoe, garlic and olives (Olive Oil too), we walked through the Cathederal and chapel where Isabella and Ferdinand's tombs rest. We finished the day watching the sun set upon the Alhambra from St. Dominicks Cathederal and then walking back to the hotel. Pete had a Spanish Omelette in Plaza Nueva. (Real Spanish omelettes only have eggs, onions and potatoes in them).

Nerja Spain

Balcony of Europe

A must for any visitor to the Costa del Sol is a IX century fortification crowned as the "Balcony of Europe". In the very heart of Nerja, this romantic setting is today the focus of many cultural activities and a popular meeting place. This scenic promenade adorned with palm trees and exotic plants provides an exceptional view of the Mediterranean.

Granada Spain

Plaza Isabel

The statue in this square shows Queen Isabel granting Columbus' petition to obtain ships and supplies. The statue was built in Rome in 1892 by Mariano Benlliure and was originally located in the Paseo del Salón.


As is the case of most Christian buildings in Granada, the Cathedral was built on the site of the former Mosque. The site of the former Mosque has since been replaced by four buildings: the Cathedral, the Royal Chapel, the Sagrario, and the Merchants' Exchange.

Los Italianos The ice cream was only OK here.

Plaza Bib-Rambla

The name Bibarrambla mean "Gate of the River" since the square originally stood on the sandy river bank. In Moorish times, festivals and jousts were held here, and later in Christian times bullfights. Unlike the bullfights of today, these were extremely violent and during one which took place in August 1609, 20 bulls killed 36 people and injured another 60.

Gypsies handing out Rosemary Sprigs

Beware the old women with rosemary sprigs. These women will pick you out of a crowd, and approach you with sprigs of rosemary, which is burned during Easter in the processions. If they get you to stop, and they will grab you to stop you, they will attempt a palm reading on the spot. Of course at this point they wish to be paid for their service to you.

Plaza Nueva

The square was built to cover up the River Darro which flows underneath in order to create more space in the city. The square soon became one of the most important centres in Granada and supposedly tournaments and bullfights used to be held here as well as public executions.

San Nicolas Viewpoint
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Day 19 April 13

Got up early and took a taxi to the Alhambra ticket office. We were one of the first in line and waited about 45 minutes while watching the sun rise. Our ticket let us go into the Palace at 8:30 So we had to hussle to get up there on time. We went through the Palace and gardens and had lunch at the American Hotel. Then we started to stroll back to Plaza Nueva. FG took a nap while Pete and Dave went walking through the city. Dave found a good ice cream place (the best on the trip) Later on we told FG about it and he had to check it out for himself (he got a 5 scooper). Then we watched the Semana Santa parade, (it was very crowded). We tried looking for a place to eat dinner but the crowds and heavy rain didn't help and ended up eating right next to our hotel (Macia Plaza).

Granada Spain

Granada is located just at the point where the Sierra Nevada mountains meet the fertile plain of the vega. Behind it are steep mountains and in front there is flat agricultural land. It was first inhabited and grew because it was easy to defend from behind and although it is dry in the summer there is always a supply of water coming from the mountain fueled by melting snow, the rich soil in the Vega provided an ample food source. The altitude is 630 metres.


See a Panorama pic of the Alhambra (Big file high-speed only)

See a map of the Alhambra

See a Panorama view from the Alhambra (Big file high-speed only)

On a hill overlooking Granada, the Alhambra—a sprawling palace-citadel that comprised royal residential quarters, court complexes flanked by official chambers, a bath, and a mosque—was begun in the thirteenth century by Ibn al-Ahmar, founder of the Nasrid dynasty, and was continued by his successors in the fourteenth century. Its most celebrated portions—a series of courtyards surrounded by rooms—present a varied repetoire of Moorish arched, columnar, and domical forms.

Fountain in Plaza del Campillo

Of all of the Catholic traditions which are celebrated throughout the year, none is most important than the Passion of Christ or Easter Week, which in Spanish is called Semana Santa o Pascua (Holy Week).

A Semana Santa Song.

All penitentes wear a long white dress cinched at the waist with a horsehair belt. They walk the procession route barefooted with their head covered with a white fabric hood with only eyeholes. The penitente is never seen in public without the hood. This is a private penitence, no one needs to know who is behind the eyes.

A Penitent action figure that Pete got in Granada.

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Day 20 April 14

The first part of the main road from Granada to Toledo is hilly and winding it was raining today and we saw a few lorrie and car accidents. After making it through Parque Natural de Despenaperros we entered the part of Spain described as "The Nebraska of Spain" After another hour or so we arrived in Toledo. We drove around the city on the ring road including seeing the area where El Greco painted his famous "View of Toledo" after checking into the Hotel Maria Cristina, we walked to the Central part of town. Saw the Cathedral and the sword shop. We then walked around town some more and retired early to the Hotel and had a good dinner.

Toledo Spain

Toledo is one of the most important centers of european medieval history. The first one to report about it was Roman author Titus Livius, who describes it as a "small fortificated town", and fortification has always been an important parameter in its history, still evident to today's tourist for the monumental walls around, and the "Swords of Toledo" gave to its steel-production world-wide fame. It was capital of Spain from the Gothic epoch until 1560, fact that explains its really impressive medieval architecture. Walking through its streets one feels like having stepped back into the Middle-Ages, but in the best sense of it, and perhaps you will search your pockets for a few gold-ducats to buy some of Toledo's fine artisany or just to enjoy of its highly recommandable cuisine.

View of city from ring road

St Martin Bridge (Puente de San Martín)

It was finished early 14th century; defensive towers built in 13th and 16th centuries This bridge linked the city of Toledo to the west. An earlier bridge was destroyed by flooding and it is thought that this rebuilt bridge was completed by the early 14th century. Defensive towers are at each end of the bridge.

Bisagra Gate

Zocodover Plaza

The large, triangular Plaza de Zocodover is the heart of the city of Toledo. Here you will find shops and restaurants. It's a good place to rest, have a meal or a snack, and watch people passing by.


Toledo Cathedral is one of the largest in the Christian world. As far as Gothic is concerned, it is surpassed only by the cathedrals of Seville and Milan. It has five naves, but its transept does not project outwards, as is the case of Notre Dame of Paris and Bourges Cathedral. Toledo Cathedral, 120 metres long and 59 wide, must be viewed from the interior, where its grandeur may be appreciated, as the narrow streets of Toledo do not afford a sufflciently broad perspective of its exterior. The roof; which in the central nave reaches a height of 44.50 metres, is held up by 88 columns. The Cathedral receives its light through more than 750 stained glass windows, from the l4th, 15 th and l6th centuries, the work of the best artists of those times.

Mariano Zamorano Sword Shop The greatest warriors in history, including Hannibal, the Japanese Daimyo, and the Roman elite, eagerly sought out the sword makers of Toledo and were not disappointed. Toledo Swords gives you the same Old World craftsmanship enjoyed by these great warriors!

Alfonso VI Gate

On the north side of the old city, this was once the main entrance into Toledo. Today it is the only remaining Moorish gate in the medieval walls. Like Sinagoga de Santa María la Blanca and Santiago del Arrabal, it is an example of the Mudéjar style. Because of the proportions of the stonework and the horseshoe arch, scholars date the lower portions in the 10th century. The upper parts are dated in the 13th century.

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Day 21 March 15

Woke up around 6am. The breakfast at the hotel opened early, so we got a few things. (looked like the 2nd best breakfast yet) then proceeded to Madrid. We packed the map book so when we got to Madrid we didn't know where we were going. Finally found signs to the airport. Check-in went smoothly. Flight to Copenhagen was not full, we moved to exit row seats and had a nice flight. Flight from Copenhagen to Seattle was uneventful.

Toledo Spain

Madrid Spain

Copenhagen Denmark

Seattle Washington

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